Join Now
Menu
Back to List
Previous Article:
6 Reasons You WILL NOT Reach Your Fitness Goal Next Year!
Next Article:
Can’t Lift For A While?

Got Pain? No Gains: Plantar Fasciitis

Is The Bottom Of Your Foot Killing You?

Posted by heyhay5212 - December 17th, 2015

Plantar fasciitis is the most common hindfoot problem in runners, affecting about 10% of the running population.  Whether you like to run long distances, high intensity intervals, or something in between, plantar fasciitis can stop you from continuing to improve your fitness.


Image title

Anatomy

  • Tarsals – A group of bones made up of the calcaneus (heel), talus, navicular, cuboid, lateral cuniform, medial cuniform, and middle cuniform (foot bones).  The tarsals are located in the posterior (back) of the foot and serve as attachment points for muscles, ligaments, and fascia.

  • Metatarsals – A group of five bones located between the tarsals and the phalanges (toes).

  • Longitudinal Arch – A supportive structure to distribute body weight throughout the foot. The longitudinal arch runs from the calcaneus (heel) to the metatarsal heads (ball of the foot) and occurs on both the medial (inside) and lateral (outside) portions of the foot. The medial longitudinal arch is higher off the ground than the lateral longitudinal arch.

  • Transverse Arch – Another supportive structure to distribute bodyweight throughout the foot.  The transverse arch runs across the anterior tarsals and metarsals.

  • Plantar Fascia – Also called the plantar aponeurosis, the plantar fascia is an interconnected, specialized, and thick band of connective tissue that covers the plantar surface (bottom) of the foot to support the longitudinal arch.  The plantar fascia acts like a spring to push the foot off the ground while walking and running.  The plantar fascia can stretch 9-12% of its resting length during walking and running.

Image title

Plantar fasciitis occurs when the plantar fascia becomes overused and overloaded.  An overload on the plantar fascia occurs at the same time a training error occurs, such as doing too much too soon, not allowing adequate rest between training sessions, or improper periodization. Wearing shoes which do not fit properly, performing activities on unyielding surfaces like concrete or rocky surfaces, pes planus (flat feet), pes cavus (high arches), a tight Achilles tendon, and excessive pronation of the foot can also contribute to plantar fasciitis.


Signs & Symptoms
Some of the signs and symptoms of plantar fasciitis are sharp pains on the plantar surface (bottom) of the foot and medial (inside) of the heel with activity or weight bearing.  In some cases of plantar fasciitis, the pain may be relieved temporarily with certain activities, but after cessation of the activity the pain returns. The pain may be the worst in the morning just after waking, and also within the first 10-20 minutes of waking.  Pain may also radiate into the lateral (outside) foot.  Muscle spasms in the foot and calf are common as well.  The plantar surface of the foot will be tender when touching or massaging.  Pain will increase if the toes are pulled into extension (pulling towards the shin) while the ankle is dorsiflexed (foot is flexed).


General Treatment
As with any inflamed area, the patient should use the RICE method.  Rest the foot as much as possible and avoid any painful activities. Ice the area at least once a day after activities that are difficult or painful. Ice the knee for 20 minutes at a time with at least 60 minutes between icing sessions. If the patient is functional enough to perform physical activity without pain, do not ice before activity. Save the ice until after the activity is over. Another method of icing for plantar fasciitis is to freeze a plastic water bottle and roll the bottle under the foot to combine ice and massage. Rolling the frozen water bottle under the foot for 5 minutes at a time several times a day will help keep the fascia from accumulating new inflammation. Compress the joint with snug socks to help keep the area supported. 


There are specially designed socks that will compress the foot. Wearing compressive socks can be a helpful adjunct to other treatment but will not fix the problem on its own. Elevate the joint to help relieve pressure on the joint and to reduce swelling. When elevating the foot, it should be above the level of the heart so any excess fluid will be pulled back into circulation.


Lengthening and stretching the plantar fascia will also help reduce pain.  The patient can use a firm ball (such as a golf ball or baseball) to roll under the foot to massage the tissue. Rolling a ball under the foot can provide immediate relief and is helpful to do as a maintenance treatment after the initial pain has subsided.

Image title


The plantar fascia can also be stretched by doing toe and calf stretches.  Putting the toes on a wall while keeping the heel flat will help stretch the distal portion of the plantar fascia.  A standard calf stretch with the heel flat on the ground and moving the body forward will help stretch out the proximal portion of the plantar fascia.  Foam rolling the calf and Achilles will also help relieve tension on the plantar fascia as well. 


Another way to reduce the load on the plantar fascia is to ensure that the proper footwear is worn. A store that specializes in running shoes should be able to fit the proper type of shoe to your foot. In my experience, the sales associates at large chain sporting goods stores do not fit shoes properly. A store that sells only running shoes will give you a better chance of getting the right type of shoe for your foot.  Avoid minimalist type shoes if you are getting plantar fascia pain. Arch supports can also be inserted into existing footwear to help support the foot as well.


Altering your running gait can also reduce the amount of stress on the plantar fascia. Entire books have been written about running form and I will try to keep the recommendations in this article brief and concise. If your heel hits the ground first while running, this can cause a lot of stress on your foot, ankles, knees, hips, and back. Landing on the midfoot makes your body act more like a spring to absorb the impact of running and the impact will be dissipated over more tissue in a longer period of time. It has taken me years to find a running gait that works well for me, so don’t get too frustrated with implementing too many changes to your running form all at once. Small changes over the course of several weeks will also give your body time to adapt to the new running gait.


Conclusion
Plantar fasciitis is a common injury that can be managed with several different types of treatment.  Many at home treatments can help manage the signs and symptoms of plantar fasciitis but if you have experienced worsening symptoms or symptoms that are not relieved by the aforementioned suggestions, then a visit to your primary care doctor is warranted. 


NOTE: This article is intended purely for educational purposes. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, or replace advice from a qualified healthcare professional. Every person with an injury is different and needs an evaluation by a physician, physical therapist, athletic trainer, or qualified healthcare professional to identify any problems. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional if you are experiencing any of the signs and/or symptoms described.



If this article helped you and you'd like to learn more ways to maximize your results, SIGN-UP for the Platinum Membership today! 



Related Articles:


Got Pain? No Gains! ACL Sprain

Image title


Got Pain? No Gains: Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Image title

Share this article on:
posted by heyhay5212
Find me on:

Owner of Onyx Athletic Performance
Certified and Licensed Athletic Trainer

Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist

BS in Athletic Training, Minor in Nutrition, University of Utah

CHECK OUT MORE GREAT ARTICLES BELOW!
Lean Bulking For Beginners

The Basic Principle For BulkingTo bulk, you have to be in a caloric surplus. This means eating more food than your body normally...

MEMBER COMMENTS

JoeHurricane

Man this symptom sounds painful and unpleasant!! Good article though :D

heyhay5212

Not fun at all! 

Wstar

Nice read!

heyhay5212

Glad you like it!

Fox84

awesome article @heyhay5212 , that is some really useful info you have there that will come in handy for alot of people

heyhay5212

Thanks @fox84!  I Hope it does!

Hawk_Given

This is a great article @heyhay5212!  I wanted to write about this as well!  You articulated well and provided information that you cannot find in the mainstream!  I suffered from plantar fasciitis for years.  It began when I trained for a Tough Mudder event.  I researched and went to 4-different Podiatrist with little info and little relief.  I had two surgeries and my problem only continued.  I was getting quite depressed and wondering if I would ever get rid of the pain.  I was never given the option or suggestion to use a golf ball until I went to a chiropractor because my gait was affected and started having hip and back problems.  Also, the orthotics given from Podiatrist are always too hard to wear.  Once going to the Chiropractor, he suggested a golf ball and to get Levelers, which is a soft but firm orthotic.  I finally began to heal after 4-years.  While using the golf ball the scar tissue was broken down and the nerve entrapment was released.  I was a new person after spending thousands of dollars on crap that didn't work.  I have gone on to help others with this problem that go to Podiatrist and internet and get the same bad advice that was given to me.  I get many thank yous!  I will print this article out now to supplement my advice to others.  I work in healthcare and we are always on our feet!  Thanks again for getting this much needed info out there.  This needs to be in the mainstream because I found nothing that came close to this article.  The best I've ever read! Hats off to you!!


Now you need one for shoulder impingement!  Nothing I have read or done has worked.  I have also spent thousands trying to get this taken care of.  Maybe I should use a golf ball...haha!

heyhay5212

Thank you so much @hawk_given. I'm glad this article has really helped you and I hope it helps others from experiencing the same frustrations that you did.  I hope your shoulders get better too.  Let me know if you have any questions!  I really appreciate the support and hope I can continue to help you in the future!

Scott_Herman

Great article @heyhay5212, I know this affects a lot of people!

heyhay5212

Thanks @scott_herman! We see lots of people at the physical therapy clinic where I work with plantar fasciitis.

Idris

Message and Physiclal Therapy are right up my alley. In addition to Sport and Health Psychology!

jcgadfly

I still have my sleep brace but haven't had to use it in a long time. Not having to carry around the weight of an average adult male helps :)

heyhay5212

Losing those extra lbs definitely takes some pressure off your feet @jcgadfly!

Idris

Normally I will purchase sneakers with extra cushion that supports the entire body when working out. Or I buy a pair of Dr. Scroll insert my sneakers. I got pain I will rest my body, hot tub and/or sauna, message therapist and stretch before and after a workout! Excellent article and very informative! Excellent job!

heyhay5212

Thanks @idris! I'm glad the article was able to help you!

Whisper

And here is the 3rd addition to this series!

heyhay5212

And more to come! Any suggestions a for the next topic @whisper?

Whisper

I suggest something about either kyphotic or lordotic posture and the possible injuries those postures can inflict on the body.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>